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"Life is not restricted, but enriched".

This campaign utilises a contemporaneous resurgence in child psychology, marking the young, healthy multipara as facilitator of family well being; once enabled as a strategic contraceptor, pregnancies are viable and desired, and emotional privation is negated all round. 1966. Physician's circular, No.3 in a series of 4 / Syntex, 'Norinyl-1'. By kind permission of Roche. Courtesy of Julia Larden, and the Wellcome Library, London. Photography by J Borge 2014 CC BY 4.0

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"Millions of women throughout the world accept and trust Ovulen 1mg"

Several oral contraceptive brands sought market differentiation by presenting motivational models of ideal end users in print campaigns, e.g. the affluent, white multipara. Here, typical racial typing is [ostensibly] reversed, and ‘Ovulen’ claims authority through universality as “The Accepted Contraceptive”. 1969. Physician's circular / Searle, 'Ovulen 1mg'. By kind permission of Pfizer. Courtesy of Julia Larden, and the Wellcome Library, London. Photography by J Borge 2014 CC BY 4.0

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"Now Women's Freedom is Complete"

Emancipatory accounts of the Pill’s envisioned impact had been cultivated through corporate literature since 1961, with the American Andromeda campaign [for ‘Enovid’]. This ‘Suffragette’ item anticipates the centrality of reproductive autonomy to second-wave feminists and the nascent Women’s Liberation Movement. 1967. Calendar for 1968 / Eli Lilly & Company, 'C-Quens 21'. With the kind cooperation of Eli Lilly. Courtesy of Julia Larden, and the Wellcome Library, London. Photography by J Borge 2014 CC BY 4.0

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(c) Anna Cady, no title, translation of Matt's image, 13-20 May 2015:

“A funeral urn? Cremating, containing or representing the body? Black. Luminous. A sinister fairy tale. Hand made and performative. Air and fire inside the body as vessel. Air as breath. Internal and external. Containing and representing air simultaneously? Transforming ‘air’ into a solid ‘thing’. I perceive the central part of the vessel in Matt’s photograph as being made of glass. The colour, beauty and fragility of the projected, reflected colours in my film-still is as if it is to be seen as, or made of, glass. Just before it melts.” www.annacady.com

Read more about (c) Anna Cady, no title, translation of Matt's image, 13-20 May 2015:

(c) Auriol Herford, no title, translation of Sam's image, 11-18 March 2015:

“Taking the lead from Sam and his interest in the connections between the natural and digital world, I reflected on the idea of my instinct and relation to technology. Last week I had a Caesarean birth followed by a week of rigorous monitoring. Every night over the last year I have also plugged a catheter bag onto my eldest son. I translated the medical objects and fragments from the experience into an image that used printmaking, drawing and collage.” http://kitestudios.org/ 

Read more about (c) Auriol Herford, no title, translation of Sam's image, 11-18 March 2015:

(c) Briony Campbell, no title, translation of Heather's image, 29 April – 6 May 2015:

"I wanted to represent Heather's vision of water, sky and leaves. Taking the clouds directly I fused them with a tree. I interpreted her plant pots as the domestic element; at once giving the plants the love they need to grow but also asserting ownership of natural things. So in my translation the pots became a human holding tight to the tree. Where Heather repeated the plant pot motif, I took the lights on the horizon of my original seascape and floated them into the sky as stars. The image is a collage of three of my own photos (involving long exposures) and one element of Heather's image.” www.brionycampbell.com

Read more about (c) Briony Campbell, no title, translation of Heather's image, 29 April – 6 May 2015:

(c) Bryan Eccleshall, 'Master Square', translation of Katarina's image, 25 March – 1st April 2015:

“Translators ordinarily shift things into their own language. Hence I have made a drawing of a photograph using a technique developed over the last couple of years, but with a slight difference. I took the photograph I was sent and edited it to make sixteen square images that, when assembled would resemble the image I was given, but this time as a drawing. The thing I made is a drawing, but for the purpose of this exercise, I assembled individual scans of the drawings into a jpeg in PhotoShop.” https://bryaneccleshall.wordpress.com/

Read more about (c) Bryan Eccleshall, 'Master Square', translation of Katarina's image, 25 March – 1st April 2015:

(c) Domingo Martínez, no title, translation of Anna's image, 20-27 May 2015:

“I perceive Anna’s image as a metaphor of wish and desire, but also of nostalgia and melancholy. The hand waiting for someone or for something to hold, or maybe just to be held. It reminded me of a photograph I bought in a flea market, which showed an arm from the same angle and a hand holding a child’s hand. I took that piece of the picture and drew it separately to express my own feelings. Then I reproduced the atmosphere in Anna’s picture, which I found very close to the nostalgic feeling I wanted to show, a feeling linked to a memory.” www.domingomartinez.es 

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(c) Heather Connelly, no title, translation of Juneau Projects' image, 22-29 April 2015

“I responded instinctively to the image, being particularly drawn to its formal composition and context – where the sculpture had been photographed and the objects that surrounded it. I sought out similar locations, photographing various elements, using a mirror to interrupt, reflect and deflect what I saw. I then manipulated and collaged some of the images together – layering and modifying them in ​

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(c) Juneau Projects, no title, translation of Sharon's image, 15-22 April 2015:

"We took an element from Sharon's image (the black rectangle) and made this into a physical object. We then photographed the object in a location echoing/paralleling Sharon's image (a canal as moving mirror in reference to Sharon's video), contemporary artists' studios (the warehouse). Finally we took inspiration from the quality of Sharon's image itself (a printed reproduction) and digitally printed an object onto the photographed object to produce a crude figure (artist or model).” www.juneauprojects.co.uk

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(c) Katarina Kelsey, no title, translation of Auriol's image, 18-25 March 2015:

“I was given some contextual background to Auriol’s translation of Sam’s piece that I initially thought I would base my translation on. However I felt unable to translate her narrative and realised I would only be interpreting it. Ultimately I turned to a material translation to translate some of the key themes of her work. Taking inspiration from translations such as Hölderlin's Antigone and Christian Hawkey’s Ventrakl, I hope my material translation can convey Auriol’s piece to you.” 
http://katarinakelseybookarts.tumblr.com/

Read more about (c) Katarina Kelsey, no title, translation of Auriol's image, 18-25 March 2015:

(c) Matt Rowe, no title, translation of Briony's image, 6-13 May 2015:

“My translation into a three-dimensional ceramic object continues the core narrative of the resampling of the environment and the suggested ownership of a natural object. I constructed a chalice-like ceramic vessel and fired it using combustive fuel harvested from the seashore, which leaves a carbon imprint on the body of the ceramic. Within the temple-like structure of the kiln I attempted a reprocessing of materials abundant within the seascape of my hometown Folkestone.” http://mattroweportfolio.co.uk 

Read more about (c) Matt Rowe, no title, translation of Briony's image, 6-13 May 2015:

(c) Sam Treadaway, 'Techno-Techno-Techno-Techno', translation of 'Still', 4-11 March 2015:

"Still immediately reminded me of a book I’d recently read discussing connections (and tensions) between the natural and digital worlds. These ideas provided the basis of my understanding, deciphering and transformation of the poem. The ‘translation’ process was initiated by converting ‘Still’ into computer binary code. Adapting the outcome I endeavoured to capture the essence of ‘Still’ in a single image. I am neutral and non-attached as to the success of this process and wish my fellow artists an interesting and rewarding match." www.samtreadaway.com

Read more about (c) Sam Treadaway, 'Techno-Techno-Techno-Techno', translation of 'Still', 4-11 March 2015:

(c) Sarah Sparkes, 'Gap between the nothing', translation of Bryan's image, 1-8 April 2015:

"Although I have stayed close, in compositional respects to Bryan's work, there is a gap through which something other has slipped in. I looked intensely at Bryan’s image, wanting mine to enable me to conjure the ghost of his. I assembled my visual signs – techniques, symbols and material processes that are my own native creative language - and started making actual objects and photographing them, then created a digital collage from these. On my computer, Bryan’s image had a blue cast, which is reflected in my translation.” www.sarahsparkes.com

Read more about (c) Sarah Sparkes, 'Gap between the nothing', translation of Bryan's image, 1-8 April 2015:

(c) Sharon Kivland, no title, translation of Sarah's image, 8-15 April 2015:

Sharon's full translation of Sarah's work is a short animation, which traces the journey into the mirror and back. “I live in two languages, haunted by a third. There is constant movement as a word thought in one language passes into a spoken word in another. This happens in the life between one image (another’s) and another (mine).  An  image, precisely thought,  is – and passes through – a mirror. This is quite a literal translation of the image that preceded it (the gap or void, the blue cast that is taken from the image before, the decorative detail that might be supposed to be feminine). It is impossible to keep completely still, even when caught or fixed.” www.sharonkivland.com

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(Image: Grant Cox/ Portus Project)

Visual Representation: The Portus Project has explored the creation of alternative methods for representing interpretations of the site, and the methods employed on the project, and for delivering these online, in exhibitions, publications and on site. This has included the production of computer graphic models, and also collaboration with professional photographers and with artists. For example, Rose Ferraby produced a series of screen prints reflecting archaeological processes such as geophysics and aerial photography in use at Portus. We have also looked at early plans of the site, including that of Rodolfo Lanciani and Italo Gismondi, and are currently examining contemporary Roman representations of the port, in particular the reverse of a sestertius of AD 112-114 showing the Trajanic basin and surrounding buildings., with Bernard Woytek (Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften).

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(Image: James Miles/ Portus Project)

Data Capture: The Portus Project has worked with technology consultants and researchers to develop and evaluate various methods for capturing archaeological data. These include methods for recording buildings such as laser scanning and gigapixel imaging, and objects, including photogrammetry and Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI). We have also experimented with novel capture tools such as Microsoft Kinect and wearable cameras like Looxcie and GoPro as a way of enhancing information exchange and student involvement in the research process.

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(James Miles/Matthew HarrisonGrant Cox/Portus Project)

Data Analysis and Presentation: Computer techniques have been used to inform our interpretative processes in many ways. For example, during the excavations of Building 5, a large structure of Trajanic date built for ship construction or repair, we began by integrating 3D geophysical data with that from excavation and laser scanning. This provided us with a framework upon which to build computer structural models so that we could test likely building forms. This in turn enabled us to better understand the building that we are studying and identify likely architectural comparanda. Furthermore we have undertaken the procedural simulation of this and other buildings, which have then been used to provoke discussions with colleagues about the possible uses and functions. A number of possible interpretations were then worked up by a 3D computer graphic artist. Portus has in turn been able to train students crossing these disciplinary boundaries.

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(No caption)

International Conscientious Objectors Day is marked around the world each year on May 15th. In July 2011 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that ‘states must respect the right to conscientious objection as part of their obligation to respect the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion', bringing European law in line with international human rights standards 

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(Photo Portus Project)

Research Theme 4

Although people were central to the life of any port, there is very little archaeological evidence for the inhabitants of Portus, or indeed many Roman Mediterranean ports, aside from occasional tombstones. Anthropological analyses of c. 43 inhumation burials of c. 6th c AD date from our excavations points to a predominantly male population involved in heavy physical labour with a heavy carbohydrate diet - a finding borne out from analyses of 3rd c AD burials nearby. On-going oxygen isotope evidence is investigating the possible origins of these people, as well as their foodstuffs. An idea of their cultural practices is coming from the table-wares and kitchen wares that they used, as well as from chance finds of rings and other personal possessions.

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(Photo: Geert Verhoeven/ Portus Project)

International Collaboration: International collaboration is of key importance for a project of this scope. The Italian archaeological Superintendency for Rome was a key partner at its inception and subsequently, while the British School at Rome has been a key logistical centre. In addition to these institutions, we have worked closely with colleagues at the CNRS/University of Lyon on deep coring, received advice on Roman shipping by the University of Aix-Marseille, ancient wood by Cornell University and infra-red and aerial photography by Ghent University, while expertise on a variety of Roman finds has been supplied by colleagues at research institutions in Italy.

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(Photo: Hembo Pagi/ Portus Project)

Initiatives Arising from the Portus Project: Our interest in linking archaeological research practice to education has developed most recently with work on virtual fieldwork and online learning. This falls under the aegis of the Portus Field School, a University of Southampton initiative arising from the Portus Project. For example, we are developing tools to provide access to field learning for disabled students, in partnership with colleagues in Geology, Geography and Oceanography. Most recently we have been developing a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) in partnership with FutureLearn focused on Portus, the Roman Mediterranean, and related archaeological practice.

Read more about (Photo: Hembo Pagi/ Portus Project)

(Photo: Hembo Pagi/Portus Project)

Methodological Innovation: The challenge of tracing the history of this extensive port within the short time-frame of our projects was met by combining non-destructive survey of the area of our five buildings followed by excavation. The former approach was intended to extract the maximum information about buildings that were still buried. Topographical survey of the ground surface provided some clues, to which was added laser-scans of standing walls; the layout of structures below the surface was then picked-out using a combination of geophysical techniques. Open area excavation was then targeted upon areas most likely to answer our research questions. All of this information was captured digitally.

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(Photo: Hembo Pagi/Portus Project)

Student Involvement: The huge cost of large-scale excavations at Classical sites means that they are much rarer today than they used to be. However, the inter-disciplinary and ethical challenges inherent to these, and the range of techniques to which they are suited, means that they are ideal for training the next generation of Classical archaeologists in field and analytical techniques, as well giving them familiarity with the material culture of the Classical world. An AHRC project studentship in Roman ceramics, for example, has addressed one of our research questions and generated deep knowledge of one class of material, while excavation data have provided dissertation topics for MSc Computing students. Furthermore, countless undergraduate students from Southampton, Cambridge, Oxford, Aix-Marseille, Ghent, Roma Tre, Roma La Sapienza, Seville and Tarragona have had their first taste of Roman Mediterranean archaeology in this unique context.

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(Photo: Penny Copeland/ Portus Project)

Research Theme 5: Portus' primary role was to supply the 800,000 inhabitants of Rome with foodstuffs and the other materials. It was also a hub for re-distributing imports from other Mediterranean ports and, to a lesser extent, exporting construction material and other products from the Tiber valley. Analyses of amphorae, table and cooking wares, bricks, decorative stone and carbonized seeds from our excavations has enabled us to trace changing commercial connections to known sources across the whole Mediterranean basin, underlining the particular importance of north Africa (ceramics) and the east Mediterranean (decorative stone).  Our work has also reveal the presence of Italian products ceramics, either for use in the port or for export.

Read more about (Photo: Penny Copeland/ Portus Project)

(Photo: Portus Project)

Outreach: We have been keen to share the results of our research from the start of the Portus Project, both within the academic community and beyond. Our outreach strategy was planned around international press conferences and public lectures in Italy, France and the UK, while project results featured in a widely aired programme made by the BBC and Discovery US. All of this has raised the profile of the site and stimulated interest at the local and international level. We have hosted many guided visits by interested amateurs, academics, local landowners, school children, US and Italian university students and members of foreign academies. In the UK we have also involved local school children in the project.  We were also visited by HRH Princess Alexandra in 2008, and on several occasions by HM Ambassador to Italy.

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(Photo: Simon Keay/ Portus Project)

Research Theme 1: We have traced the structural history of Portus, from its establishment under Claudius, to its enlargement under Trajan and subsequent emperors down into the 4th c AD. Five key buildings at the centre of the port played distinctive roles in respect to the Claudian and Trajanic harbour basins and a related canal. From the early 2nd c, the three-storey Building 3 (Palazzo Imperiale) was its administrative hub and the adjacent Building 5 was the focus of ship-building or repair; the Grandi Magazzini di Settimio Severo was built at a date in the later 2nd c AD, probably for storage.

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(Photo: Simon Keay/Portus Project)

Research Theme 2: The later 5th and the 6th c AD witnessed the gradual siltation of the outer Claudian basin, a contraction in the extent of the port, a transformation of the function of its buildings and in the volume and range of its traffic and cargo. In the 470s, the five buildings under study were enclosed within a defensive wall designed to protect the inner Trajanic basin from seaborne attack, possibly from Vandal pirates. Buildings 5 and 3 were systematically demolished in the mid to later 6th c, probably by the Byzantine authorities, and burials began to proliferate amongst the ruins.

Read more about (Photo: Simon Keay/Portus Project)

(Photo: Simon Keay/Portus Project)

Research Theme 3: The large scale and complexity of the port infrastructure at Portus is best appreciated by remembering that by the early 2nd c AD it was the central node in what might term as a "port-system". Communication between Portus and Ostia and the commercial district of Rome, was articulated by a network of canals and the river Tiber itself. Our work has greatly increased understanding of a key part of this, the Isola Sacra, that lies between Portus and Ostia. It has revealed a massive new canal running south from the Fossa Traiana and parallel to the cemetery, field divisions, and warehouse complexes.

Read more about (Photo: Simon Keay/Portus Project)

(Photo: Simon Keay/Portus Project)

Interdisciplinary Research Environment: The complexity and richness of this site qualify it well for the use of scientific techniques as well as those more traditionally associated with the Humanities, thereby promoting an inter-disciplinary approach to studying the past. Analyses of sedimentary deposits and micro-fauna from deep cores drilled into the Claudian basin, quays and canals have taught us much about the use of water-spaces at Portus. Its environment, by contrast, is being studied by means of carbonized seeds and ancient pollen, while ceramics have been tracked to their widely differing places of origin across the Mediterranean by analysing the petrology of the minerals found within their clay matrix. Other scientific approaches include marine and terrestrial geophysical survey, computer visualization of project results and biological profiling of ancient skeletons.

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(Portus Project/UC Berkeley/Moscow State University/MSR)

Knowledge Exchange: One aim of the Portus Project has been to develop and enhance collaborations between academic and other organisations and individuals. This includes the development and application of digital methods of value both to the Portus Project and to industrial, government and third sector partners. For example, we worked with L-P: Archaeology to develop and test the functionality of their new ARK database. These developments have fed into their other commercial and research contracts. The project has also worked with Microsoft Research (MSR) on areas such as data capture, research data management and publication and learning technologies.

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‘Although your elders’ love for you amounts to adoration, a scene like this would be improved by greater moderation’

Illustration by Charles Malcolm Allen in Betty Allen and Mitchell Pirie Briggs, If You Please: A Book of Manners for Young Moderns, rev. ed., J. B. Lippincott Company, [1942] 1950, p. 194.

Allen and Briggs’s books exemplify a tendency to show in the illustrations what is censured by the text. Scenes of teenagers having fun—listening to loud music, socialising without permission—carry disapproving captions. However, these depictions of censured activity might provide scenarios of identification for young people in a manner unplanned by authors and possibly even illustrators in the absence of an authorial voice for that group in post-war advice books.

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‘Anemone’ furniture fabric design by William Morris

Registered by ‘William Morris trading under the style of Morris & Co’ on 8 February 1876. BT 43/372/298226. This original design is for a woven wool and silk fabric. It demonstrates Morris’ use of natural forms and motifs, which were the result of his careful study of the natural world, within flat, stylised patterns. Like Pugin, Morris believed in ‘truth to materials’, saying that he tried ‘to make woollen substances as woollen as possible, cotton as cottony as possible, and so on.’ At the time this design was registered, Morris was experimenting with different dyes, in particular indigo, as an alternative to the newer chemical dyes.

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‘Daisy’ wallpaper designed by William Morris

Registered by Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co on 1 February 1864. BT 43/99/171341. ‘Daisy’ was the first wallpaper designed by William Morris to be put into production. Morris, like the Pre-Raphaelite painters with whom he set up Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co, shared Pugin’s passion for medieval art, culture and design, as well as his belief in the intrinsic value of hand craftsmanship and dislike of contemporary British design. ‘Daisy’, formed of stylised floral motifs, is thought to have been inspired by an illustration in a fifteenth-century version of Froissart’s Chronicles, shown in an illuminated manuscript at the British Museum. By the 1870s Morris’s wallpapers were often regarded as key elements of an Aesthetic interior.

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‘Indian’ wallpaper designed by Christopher Dresser

Registered by Jeffrey & Co on 28 May 1879. Christopher Dresser was a prolific designer, working across most areas of the decorative arts. He wrote a number of influential works on design and design theory, but unlike proponents of the Arts and Crafts Movement embraced mass production. Like Pugin and other designer reformers, Dresser believed in using nature as the basis of ornament. Trained as a botanist, he pioneered the concept of ‘artistic botany’, contributing a plate to his former tutor Owen Jones’ book The Grammar of Ornament. Like Jones, Dresser believed that representations of nature should be ‘conventionalised’ rather than naturalistic, as shown in this design featuring stylised cornflowers.

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‘Moresque’ wallpaper designed by Owen Jones

Registered by John Trumble & Co on 23 June 1858. BT 43/97/114049. The principles of design set out by Pugin were taken up by the design reform movement based around the Government School of Design in South Kensington. A key figure in the movement was Owen Jones. Jones travelled widely, researching different styles of design which were brought together and categorised in his hugely influential book The Grammar of Ornament, published in 1856. He was particularly inspired by Islamic design, as can be seen in this wallpaper, and led the way in the nineteenth century revival of what was termed the Moorish style in architecture and decoration.

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‘Peacock’ wallpaper dado designed by E W Godwin

Registered by Jeffrey & Co on 18 February 1873. BT 43/100/270551

E W Godwin helped to popularise the Anglo-Japanese style, one of the defining characteristics of the Aesthetic movement. He introduced one of the movement’s most popular symbols, the peacock, shown here in the highly stylised form of a Japanese crest or mon. The diagonal ‘H’ pattern in the background was also derived from Japanese ornament. This formal peacock design was intended for use as a dado, with another of his designs, ‘Bamboo’, an informal, asymmetrical design, as the filling, or main section of wallpaper. The three-part division of walls into a dado, filling and frieze became a distinctive feature of Aesthetic design.

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‘Persian sprig’ wallpaper designed by Owen Jones

Registered by John Trumble and Company on 23 June 1858. BT 43/97/114061. ‘Persian Sprig’ again reflects Jones’ interest in Islamic design. It also demonstrates his design precepts. He said that ‘all direct representations of nature in paper hangings should be avoided’ but instead natural forms should be ‘conventionalised’, or stylised, and distributed across the surface using geometric principles. Jones was well-known as a colour theorist, and received high praise for his colour schemes for the interior of the Crystal Palace. For wallpapers, he said that colours should be blended so that from a distance they would present ‘a neutralised bloom’.

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‘Star’ wallpaper by designed by E W Godwin

Registered by William Watt on 21 July 1876. BT 43/101/302033. Godwin showed a strong interest in wallpaper design, providing patterns for several leading companies. He produced wallpapers in a wide range of styles, but while highly original, his work was in keeping with the precepts of the design reformers, with designs such as ‘Star’ – one of only a few surviving examples of his wallpapers – featuring flat, conventionalised natural forms. Asymmetry was closely associated with Anglo-Japanese design, and was in sharp contrast to the strict symmetry found in the work of designers like Owen Jones.

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‘The Kitchen Buffet’, illustration by James Kingsland

Mary and Russel Wright, Guide to Easier Living, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954 (1950). Permission Russel Wright Studios CC-BY.

Hosting domestic dinner parties without the assistance of staff is a major topic of twentieth-century domestic advice. Mary and Russel Wright, leading designer of casual mid-century modern ceramics, proclaim the social benefits of buffet suppers and asking guests to clear up after the meal. Illustrator James Kingsland here provides a clear picture of how the tradition-busting buffet supper works for home entertaining.

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‘The Sleeping Beauty’ wallpaper designed by Walter Crane

Registered by Jeffrey & Co on 21 August 1879. BT 43/103/338553

Well-known as an illustrator of children’s books, Walter Crane designed a number of nursery wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co, including The Sleeping Beauty. Like William Morris, Crane believed that the decorative arts had symbolic potential. Morna O’Neill (2010) has discussed the way in which Crane returned to the theme of The Sleeping Beauty throughout his career. For example, in an essay of 1892 he refers to ‘the sense of beauty’ who, ‘like the enchanted princess in the wood, seems liable, both in communities and individuals, to periods of hypnotism’.

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‘The Sunflower’ wallpaper designed by Bruce Talbert

Registered by Jeffrey & Co on 22 January 1878. Bruce Talbert was one of the most prolific and influential designers of the nineteenth century, who designed furniture and metalwork as well as wallpapers and textiles. His ‘sunflower’ series of wallpapers were his most popular, and his style, with its use of flat patterns and sharply delineated flowers, fruit and leaves, was much imitated. This design was displayed at the International Exhibition in Paris in 1878, where it won a gold medal. The sunflower was perhaps the most popular and enduring motif of the Aesthetic movement, appearing in wallpapers, textiles, ceramics and even in the external brickwork of buildings.

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‘The Ties That Bind (II)’

Although communication intentions for the panels were specific, each image and composition was open to multiple interpretations. Readings of the textiles were inevitably informed by viewers’ personal and cultural experiences, their own memories, histories, and wider social and historical knowledge. Evidence of contextual influence on interpretations of the work also emerged at some sites, with viewers associating the images with local or regional history.

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‘Vulgarity’, Portrait by John Deakin, jugs photographed by Elsie Collins

Image in Alan Jarvis, The Things We See No. 1 Indoors and Out, West Drayton, Middlesex: Penguin, 1946, 47. Permission, Design Council / University of Brighton Design Archives. CC-BY.

Jarvis shows how visual rhetoric can communicate class and gender norms. He contributes to a tradition of teaching consumers to distinguish between good and bad, which extends back to nineteenth-century design reform, for example Augustus Welby Pugin’s True Principles (1841). Jarvis wrote ‘…by vulgarity we mean just this kind of coarseness of body, cheapness of ornament, and insensitive application of make-up. The parallel in the case of pottery is exact, in its florid shape and crude cosmetic decoration’. 

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Speakers at the "Beyond the Battlefields: Käthe Buchler's Photographs of Germany in the Great War" exhibit. Copyright for images at the exhibit: German Photographic Museum in Braunschweig, Lower Saxony.

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From the "Beyond the Battlefields: Käthe Buchler's Photographs of Germany in the Great War" exhibit. Copyright: German Photographic Museum in Braunschweig, Lower Saxony.

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From the "Beyond the Battlefields: Käthe Buchler's Photographs of Germany in the Great War" exhibit. Copyright: German Photographic Museum in Braunschweig, Lower Saxony.

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